School health programs have increased substantially over the past several decades in recognition of the connection between health and learning. The Institute of Medicine recommended in 1997 that all students in elementary, middle, and junior high school receive sequential health education to help shape their behaviors.
A second hypothesis links television viewing, in particular, to increased caloric intake either from eating during viewing or as a result of food advertising on television, which tends to emphasize high-calorie, high-fat foods with poor nutritional content . Schools can also have an effect on student behaviors, the ability to arrive at school ready to learn, and overall health.
For example, in the context of Chinese immigrant families, Chao argues that parental control efforts are related to the goals of training children to have harmonious relations with others, which is considered essential to maintain the integrity of the family. In the context of black families, Brody et al. argue for the concept of “no-nonsense” parenting, which is thought to protect youths from dangerous surroundings. Harsh, punitive disciplinary practices are thought to feed into the cycle of anger and aggressive behavior developed by some children and youth . One-third (33.2 percent) of all births in America in 2000 were of children born to an unmarried mother , and 22.4 percent of all children live with a single parent .
Public health interventions addressing these factors, from seat belts to traffic signals and from law enforcement to public education and the development of bike paths, have achieved dramatic reductions in injury and fatality rates . School-age children spend 35 to 50 hours per week in and around school buildings. In some communities, schools have been built on relatively undesirable land, such as landfill sites like Love Canal. Schools are often located on old industrial sites or near highways, resulting in exposure to auto emissions and air pollution . Many school buildings are old and poorly maintained, leading to signs of std in men exposures to air pollutants, radon, asbestos, pesticides, and lead .
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The report noted that skills training, peer involvement, social learning theory, and community involvement have the greatest effect on school health education. Environmental tobacco smoke has been shown to cause many different health effects in exposed children, including cancer, asthma, increased severity of respiratory syncytial virus, and increased incidence of ear infections (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). It is unclear to what extent these effects are related to religion or religiosity rather than parenting, community values, or attributes of youth who tend to be religious.
- Among preschool children, divorce generally had small negative effects on their social adjustment but no effects in other domains.
- How much of the difference can be attributed to family structure itself in contrast to the prior and often continuing stress of a divorce or separation is not clear.
- By contrast, children of primary school age appeared to suffer greater negative effects from divorce.
- Other reviews have found that children of depressed parents are at substantially greater risk to develop depression themselves .
- Intact marriages are associated with higher incomes, more male role models, fewer residential moves, and more discipline and supervision than marriages that break up .
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Longitudinal national survey studies reveal that children reared in families with two biological parents tend to complete more schooling and engage in less risky behavior , particularly if their SES is high. The determinants of motor-vehicle-related injuries and fatalities are well recognized. Some relate to behavioral issues, such as speeding, failing to yield to pedestrians at crossings, and driving while intoxicated; others relate to automobile design and features, including impact absorption, seat belts, air bags, and similar features.
Betancourt and Lopez suggest that culture refers to “a distinct system of meaning or a cognitive schema that is shared by a group of people or an identifiable segment of the population” (García Coll and Magnuson, 2000, p. 97). Thus, practices to prevent and promote health and provide treatment have to make sense and be congruent with these systems of meanings and practices. In addition, any self-report on health is embedded in these cultural constructions. The average child will have viewed over 14,000 sexual simulations and sexual innuendos each year . However, the evidence is particularly disturbing in the case of violent pornography.
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It is estimated that by 2050, children of color will account for a majority of children in this country . Consequently, dominant notions of health—mostly based on middle-class, northern European beliefs and practices—are increasingly out of alignment with the traditions, customs, and beliefs of those with other ancestries. Culture is often defined by the ideas, beliefs, and values coupled with the rituals and practices of social groups, including but not limited to families.